Blepharoplasty is a plastic surgery performed for correcting defects, deformities and disfiguration of the eye lids and to aesthetically improve the eye region. With the excision and repositioning of excess tissues and fat, and reinforcement of related muscles and tendons, the procedure finds a solution to functional and cosmetic problems of the eyebrow.
The procedure is intended to restore the correct functioning of affected eyelids, to improve the
appearance of the eye region, tighten the other structures that support the eye and cut and remove excess fat from the retro septal area so as to bring about a change in the anatomy from the lower eyelid to the cheek. The correction carried out may involve the upper and lower eyelids, the tissues surrounding the eyebrows, the nasal bridge area and upper portion of the cheek. Trans-conjunctival
blepharoplasty is the removal of fat from the lower eyelid. The surgeon first ensures that the patient is fit to undergo the surgery by physically examining the periorbital area. The same
procedure also effectively may be used to remove excess eyelid skin, to correct inappropriate position of the eyelid and to alter the prominence of the naso-jugal groove. Blepharoplasty of the upper eyelid rectifies the loss of peripheral vision that occurs as a result of slackness of the upper eyelid hanging over the eyelashes. This affects the outer and upper fields of vision, thus proving to be a hindrance in performing normal activities involving eyes. East Asian Blepharoplasty, also called double eyelid surgery is a cosmetic surgery, where the skin around the eyelids is reshaped, so as to create an upper eyelid with crease, from an eyelid that does not have a natural crease.
How the procedure is performed
External surgical incisions are made along the natural skin lines of the upper and lower eyelids. This avoids scars from becoming visible. The surgery generally takes about two hours if both upper and lower eyelids are involved. The procedure is done at the hospital or surgical centre, requires local anaesthesia. The surgeon begins with the upper lids. Through the incisions made on the lines, the surgeon separates the skin from the
underlying tissue and removes the excessive adipose tissue fat collected, extra unwanted skin and muscle. After this, he sutures the stitches. Lower lids may or may not require stitches. Cuts may be made inside the lower lid or using laser techniques for correction of lower lids. Sometimes, cuts are made along the eyelash margin to remove excess fat and skin. After all these procedures, laser resurfacing may be required. A special type of stitch called canthopexy is applied to keep the eyelid’s position remain fixed, so as to enable quick healing process.The effect of the upper procedure is visible for a few years. Lower eyelid surgery does not require repetition. If eye lids sag again, forehead lift may be more effective than repeated eye lid procedure.
Authored by Dr Shailesh Pandey, ENT Specialist
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